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---
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lang: en
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description: Presentation of ISIDORE, the search engine for discovering publications, digital data and profiles of social sciences and humanities researchers from around the world.
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---

# ISIDORE

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## What is ISIDORE?
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ISIDORE is a search engine for discovering and finding publications, digital data and the profiles of researchers in the social sciences and humanities (SSH) from around the world.
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The full text of several million documents (articles, theses and dissertations, reports, datasets, web pages, database records, descriptions of archival holdings, etc.) and event announcements (seminars, conferences, etc.) can be searched. In addition, ISIDORE links these millions of documents together by enriching them with scientific concepts created by SSH research communities.
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It is accessible on the Web through the portal [isidore.science](https://isidore.science).
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It also offers scientific social network functionalities. As such, it falls into the category of search engines and assistants and offers many features to organize scientific monitoring.
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Launched on December 8, 2010, ISIDORE is the result of a collaboration between the CNRS "very large equipment" Adonis (2007-2013), the Center for Direct Scientific Communication and the companies Antidot, Mondéca and Sword. It is currently developed, updated and operated by the TGIR Huma-Num.
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References on the history of ISIDORE:
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- Yannick Maignien, "ISIDORE, de l'interconnexion de données à l'intégration de services", Hyper Article en Ligne - Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société, [10670/1.k9lck9](https://isidore.science/document/10670/1.k9lck9)
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- Stéphane Pouyllau et al, "Bilan 2011 de la plateforme ISIDORE et perspectives 2012-2015", MoDyCo, Modèles, Dynamiques, Corpus - UMR 7114, [10670/1.bqexsj](https://isidore.science/document/10670/1.bqexsj)
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- Philippe Bourdenet, "L'espace documentaire en restructuration : l'évolution des services des bibliothèques universitaires", Le serveur TEL (thèses-en-ligne), [10670/1.lnieuv](https://isidore.science/document/10670/1.lnieuv)

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## How does ISIDORE work?
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ISIDORE harvests textual metadata and full text, enriches them and then indexes them. It uses the metadata of the documents as well as the full text. The goal is to analyze this information in order to enrich the document, to link them to the concepts of the scientific vocabularies (thesaurus, etc.) and to link them to the authors' identifiers (ORCID, IDRef, IDHAL, VIAF, etc.).
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Several enrichments are performed:
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- Semantic annotation: the words present in the metadata of the documents are compared to the entries of the vocabularies through an algorithm based on a morphological analysis of the terms. If an equivalence is found between a term from the document and an entry in one of the vocabularies, then the resource will be linked to that vocabulary entry. The vocabularies are multilingual and aligned with each other. Thus, the semantic annotation is multilingual.
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- Disciplinary categorization: ISIDORE uses a semantic classifier that, after being trained on a reference corpus, categorizes all documents in ISIDORE into the SSH disciplines of the MORESS vocabulary. The classifier is trained with the help of the manual categorization completed by researchers in [HAL](https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/) when depositing their publications.
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- Detection of the authors: ISIDORE detects the authors of the documents and enriches the author form (first name and last name) with the help of international (ORCID, VIAF, ISNI) and national (IDHAL, IDRef) author identifiers.
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ISIDORE indexes, in its search engine:
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- Document metadata;
- The full text (if it is available in open access) ;
- The semantic annotations ;
- Disciplinary classification;
- Author enrichment and normalization.
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More information is available on [the "Vocabularies" page](https://isidore.science/vocabularies) of ISIDORE.
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### Can ISIDORE index multilingual documents and data?
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Yes. Since 2015, documents and datasets in English, Spanish
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and French are indexed, enriched and linked to scientific repositories by ISIDORE (metadata and full text). For full text outside these three languages, it is indexed in the language of the document but in that cas no enrichment is done.
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For more information, you can consult our blog post on the subject: [Isidore speaks English, sino también español et toujours en français](https://humanum.hypotheses.org/921).
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### How often is ISIDORE updated?
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ISIDORE is updated, incrementally, on average once a month. Why this delay? In addition to harvesting and indexing documents, ISIDORE enriches them with concepts from scientific repositories (thesauri, taxonomies, etc.). This semantic enrichment is automatic and allows us to offer you suggestions for reading to help you discover documents other than those you were looking for. This requires a certain amount of processing and calculation time.
The updates of the documents with which you are associated, which will thus be proposed in your user account as documents to be claimed, will also be done monthly.
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The ISIDORE's change log is available on [https://isidore.science/releases](https://isidore.science/releases).

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### What is the circuit for adding collections in ISIDORE?

Two scenarios:

- A research project, a team, a laboratory, a library can propose collections to be harvested by simple e-mail to <isidore-sources@huma-num.fr>. The Huma-Num team studies the request and exchanges with the requester in order to fully understand how the metadata and the data to be indexed are described. Most often, a first harvest and a first indexing and enrichment are carried out so that the requester can see and analyze how their data will be indexed in ISIDORE. Then, the exchanges potentially continue to adjust the indexing process as well as possible.

- The Huma-Num team identifies a data warehouse or a digital library and contacts the data producer or the structure that distributes this data to exchange and propose harvesting and indexing in ISIDORE. A first harvesting and a first indexing and enrichment are carried out so that the requester can see and analyze how their data will be indexed in ISIDORE. Then, the exchanges potentially continue to adjust the indexing process as well as possible.
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## How to use ISIDORE?
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ISIDORE offers several tools to search, discover, collect and organize the contents it indexes:
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### The isidore.science portal
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The [isidore.science](https://isidore.science) portal is a website in three languages that provides a [relevance search engine](https://isidore.science) that can be used with several query methods.
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- By default, ISIDORE searches for all the words in a query posed by the user by removing empty words ("of", "the", "the",  "the", etc.);
- It is possible to search for a document with a complete sentence or a group of words by using quotation marks around the sentence or word group, for example: "direction of consciousness" will search for exactly this expression. Thus, in this case, the "of" will not be considered as an empty word;

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#### Search operators
Several boolean search operators are available in
ISIDORE. Note that the syntax of the operators is important in
ISIDORE, they are always in UPPERCASE (e.g. AND):
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- AND: the intersection will find the terms (or set of terms) common to the query.
    For example:
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    - consciousness AND gender
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    - "cold war" AND migration
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- OR: the union will find the terms belonging to both sets of terms, or to one or the other.
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    For example:
    - "semantic web" OR "web 3.0"
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- EXCEPT (NOT): the exclusion will reduce the noise by excluding terms. For example:
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    - revolution NOT French
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- NEAR(n.): the NEAR(n.) operator (i.e. "close to") will link terms by indicating a value "n." of proximity between them. It works like an AND with n. word(s) between the terms. The value "n." indicates the number of words that separate the two terms. NEAR also works without the value n. and is in this case equal to a NEAR(10), i.e. 10 words between the searched terms (standard spacing).
    - house NEAR(4) nobility : searches for house and nobility with
        a proximity of 4 words

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#### Sorting of search results
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By default, in [isidore.science](https://isidore.science), the results are sorted by semantic relevance. It is possible to change the sorting of the search results to:
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- sorting by novelty
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- sorting by author's name in alphabetical order
- sorting by author's name in reverse alphabetical order
- sort by ascending date
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- sorting by decreasing date
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VVery soon, two more options will also be available:
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- sorting on the title by alphabetical order
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- sorting on the title by reverse alphabetical order
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### Advanced Search
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An advanced search is also available at [https://isidore.science/as](https://isidore.science/as) and also accessible from
the first page of the [portal](https://isidore.science/as).
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### Personal space for researchers
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Isidore.science offers a personal space for researchers allowing them to:
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- collect, classify and organize the documents found;
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- gather all their scientific production in order to edit it in a personal profile page;
- follow the productions of colleagues;
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- record and publish queries and their results for monitoring purposes;
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- create bibliographies that can be exported to Zotero.
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### The APIs of isidore.science
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The [isidore.science search engine APIs](https://api.isidore.science) are available through the GET method on HTTP or HTTPS.
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They provide a fast, accurate and reliable query service for ISIDORE data with advanced search features (auto-completion, spell checking, multi-criteria, boolean and faceted searches, sorting, aggregation of answers, etc).
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Each request to the engine is submitted by means of a URI pointing to a specific web service. The response is a stream in XML (default format) or JSON format.
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The [isidore.science API web page](https://api.isidore.science) details all the commands available for the different services available.
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### Enriched metadata for *Linked Open Data*.
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ISIDORE's metadata, ontologies and vocabularies are available in a triplet repository [RDF (Resource Description Framework) or *TripleStore*](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resource_Description_Framework), thus placing ISIDORE data in the *Linked Open Data*. A web interface for querying using the SPARQL language and browsing the ISIDORE graph is available via:
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- A documented SPARQL query interface and presentation of the ISIDORE data model: https://isidore.science/sqe  
- The basic Virtuoso software interface: https://isidore.science/sparql
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In the ISIDORE *TripleStore*, the main vocabularies for structuring information are:
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- RDF and RDFS
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- Dublin Core Element Set
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- Dublin Core TERMS
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- SIOC
- FOAF
- OWL
- SKOS
- ORE
- DBPEDIA

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(The complete list is available at <https://isidore.science/sparql?nsdecl>)
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### Complementarity between ISIDORE and Zotero
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#### Use from ISIDORE of the Zotero connector to feed its bibliographic database
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ISIDORE is compatible with Zotero. The references of documents can be imported on two levels as soon as the user has installed [the Zotero connector](https://www.zotero.org/download/) in his browser:
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- On the page listing the results of a search,
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- On the page listing the results of a search, in the page displaying a document.
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#### Using the ISIDORE search connector from Zotero
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Zotero (Linux, MacOS, Windows client) uses search engines to search or complete bibliographic references directly from the Zotero interface. We propose here two ISIDORE connectors for Zotero that make it possible to use ISIDORE from author search.
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By adding ISIDORE to Zotero you can:

- complete references from a search on the author's name: this is the "ISIDORE, help me find what he/she has published."
- find documents in which the author is cited: this is the "ISIDORE, what do you have on the author?"
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These [connectors and installation documentation are available on the TGIR Huma-Num GitLab](https://gitlab.huma-num.fr/spouyllau/ISIDORtero).
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### Use of RSS feeds
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ISIDORE can propose its research results in the form of RSS feeds in order to feed scientific monitoring software (including Zotero for example), research notebooks, etc. The RSS feeds created in ISIDORE are updated, like all the contents of the search engine, approximately once a month during the general update of the ISIDORE contents. Thus, it is possible to follow, from Zotero, the update of the ISIDORE documents resulting from the registered queries.
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To do so, access your personal space (login required), and click "My queries" to see your registered queries:
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![My Image](media/isidore.png)
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For a registered query, you have to click on the pictogram "Request
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RSS feed of the query" available on the right ![My Image](media/isidore-rss-001.png){: style="width:170px"} and to copy the link with ![My Image](media/isidore-requeteRSS.png){: style="width:120px"}.
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The copied link is in the form: `https://isidore.science/feed/lt3913`.
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If your browser is equipped with a module for reading RSS feeds, this link can be used directly in your browser.
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For our example, we will continue with Zotero.
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In Zotero, you have to choose: New feed > From URI:

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![My Image](media/zot-001.png){: style="width:60%;margin-left:20%"}
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Then add the url of the feed provided by ISIDORE (N.B. When using Safari under MacOS, take care to remove the mention "feed:" from
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the url). Then paste it in "URL" of the Zotero RSS feed creation window, example below:

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![My Image](media/zot-002.png)
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Then you have to give a title to your feed, for example:
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"isidore.science - Query on ...".
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## What can be found in ISIDORE?
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### Organization of documents and data in ISIDORE
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ISIDORE contains several million documents in SSH that are harvested, enriched with scientific references and indexed. They are organized into:
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- Research documents and data (archives, raw materials, photographs, films, datasets, statistics, etc.), identified in the ISIDORE ontology by: http://isidore.science/class/primaires
- Published documents and data (articles, books, dissertations and theses, reports, etc.), identified in the ISIDORE ontology by: http://isidore.science/class/secondaires
- Scientific events (conferences, study days, etc.), identified in the ISIDORE ontology by: http://isidore.science/class/evenementielles
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For a large number of SSH disciplines, ISIDORE makes it possible to search documents coming from the main publication platforms worldwide, as well as a large number of digitized collections from national, university and
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municipal libraries.
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For advanced search uses, the [ISIDORE advanced search](https://isidore.science/as) offers, for example, the possibility of searching for documents between two dates and by discipline or by collections.
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The main publication platforms (journals and books) present in ISIDORE are:
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- OpenEdition
- Cairn
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- Perseus
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- Erudit
- Oapen
- Redalyc
- Scielo Books

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The complete list of collections containing publications can be obtained by querying [the ISIDORE Triple Store](https://isidore.science/sqe) with the [following SPARQL request](https://isidore.science/sparql?query=SELECT+*+WHERE+%7B%0D%0A%3Fs+rdf%3Atype+%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fisidore.science%2Fclass%2FCollection%3E.%0D%0A%3Fs+rdf%3Atype+%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fisidore.science%2Fclass%2Fpublications%3E.%0D%0A%3Fs+dcterms%3Atitle+%3Ftitre%0D%0A%7D+ORDER+BY+ASC%28%3Ftitre%29&format=text%2Fhtml&debug=on&timeout=0) :
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```
SELECT * WHERE {
 ?s rdf:type <http://isidore.science/class/Collection>.
 ?s rdf:type <http://isidore.science/class/publications>.
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 ?s dcterms:title ?title
} ORDER BY ASC(?title)
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```
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The main digital libraries (municipal, national, etc.) present in ISIDORE are:
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- Gallica
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- Selene
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- E-rara
- NuBIS
- Octaviana
- Burgerbibliothek
- Berkeley Library Digital Collections
- Argonnaute
- BNE
- Cornell
- Didόmena

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The complete list of collections containing archival holdings and book collections can be obtained by querying [the ISIDORE Triple Store](https://isidore.science/sqe) with the [following SPARQL request](https://isidore.science/sparql/?default-graph-uri=&query=SELECT+*+WHERE+%7B%0D%0A%3Fs+rdf%3Atype+%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fisidore.science%2Fclass%2FCollection%3E.%0D%0A%3Fs+rdf%3Atype+%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fisidore.science%2Fclass%2Fprimaires%3E.%0D%0A%3Fs+dcterms%3Atitle+%3Ftitre%0D%0A%7D+ORDER+BY+ASC%28%3Ftitre%29&format=text%2Fhtml&timeout=0&debug=on) :
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```
SELECT * WHERE {
 ?s rdf:type <http://isidore.science/class/Collection>.
 ?s rdf:type <http://isidore.science/class/primaires>.
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 ?s dcterms:title ?title
} ORDER BY ASC(?title)
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```

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### Indexing of the main data platforms in SHS
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ISIDORE harvests and indexes the contents of many SSH data platforms, allowing researchers to group all their data in their user profile. We encourage researchers, for their research programs, to use platforms offering open interoperability devices and protocols to present documentary and scientific metadata.
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The main data platforms (sources, archives but also publications) are harvested by ISIDORE.
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The complete list of collections can be obtained by querying [the ISIDORE 3store](https://isidore.science/sqe) with the [following SPARQL request](https://isidore.science/sparql/?default-graph-uri=&query=SELECT+*+WHERE+%7B%0D%0A+%3Fs+rdf%3Atype+%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fisidore.science%2Fclass%2FCollection%3E.%0D%0A+%3Fs+dcterms%3Atitle+%3Ftitre%0D%0A%7D+ORDER+BY+ASC%28%3Ftitre%29%0D%0A&format=text%2Fhtml&timeout=0&debug=on)
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```
SELECT * WHERE {
 ?s rdf:type <http://isidore.science/class/Collection>.
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 ?s dcterms:title ?title
} ORDER BY ASC(?title)
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```

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Please feel free to report any new source to us.
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#### Can data deposited and documented in NAKALA be referenced by ISIDORE?
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Yes, data deposited and documented in [NAKALA (the data repository for SSH by Huma-Num)](https://documentation.huma-num.fr/nakala/) can be
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accessible in ISIDORE. NAKALA offers as standard the [OAI-PMH](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Archives_Initiative_Protocol_for_Metadata_Harvesting) interoperability protocol which allows for the harvesting of document metadata, and therefore for referencing, enrichment and indexation by ISIDORE.

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However, referencing by OAI-PMH harvesting is not
automatic for the moment, in particular to allow users to prepare and organize their data and
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data and metadata. To be referenced, simply request by email to be indexed in ISIDORE via <isidore-sources@huma-num.fr>.
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#### How will scientific articles and images deposited in the HAL, HAL-SHS and MédiHAL open archive be accessible in ISIDORE?
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All the files (PDF, illustrations, photographs, audio and video) deposited and documented in the open archive HAL, including HAL-SHS, as well as MédiHAL are automatically referenced in ISIDORE and indexed at the level of their metadata. All these documents and their notices are thus accessible through the various query interfaces of ISIDORE.
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#### Can the data deposited in the Didómena (EHESS) warehouse be referenced by ISIDORE?
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Yes, [Didómena](https://didomena.ehess.fr) (the research data warehouse of EHESS) offers OAI-PMH interoperability. Be careful, harvesting is not automatic. For your collection to be referenced, please provide us with the OAI-PMH access point via <isidore-sources@huma-num.fr>.
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#### Can data deposited in Calames (ABES) be referenced by ISIDORE?
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Yes, descriptions of archival holdings cataloged in [Calames](http://calames.abes.fr) (the catalog of archives and manuscripts of French university libraries) are indexed in ISIDORE. However, the EAD-XML standard, used in Calames, does not always allow an optimal documentary indexing: this mainly concerns the richness of the metadata. This is due to the logic of the EAD-XML standard in the encoding of information in the levels of description of the collections.
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#### Can the data deposited in the Data.sciencespo warehouse be referenced by ISIDORE?
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Yes, the data deposited and documented in [Data.sciencespo](https://data.sciencespo.fr) (Dataverse) offer interoperability in OAI-PMH. They are harvested automatically by ISIDORE.
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#### Can the data deposited in the COCOON platform be referenced by ISIDORE?
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Yes, the data deposited and documented in [the COCOON platform](https://cocoon.huma-num.fr) offer interoperability in OAI-PMH. This platform is automatically harvested by ISIDORE.

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#### Can files and documents deposited in the European Zenodo platform be referenced by ISIDORE?
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Yes, it is possible for ISIDORE to reference the files and
documents deposited and documented on the platform
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[Zenodo](https://zenodo.org).
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The referencing is based on the principle of OAI-PMH harvesting on a
set of files and data (and thus their metadata) corresponding to one or more
identifier(s) corresponding to the "communities" identifiers in Zenodo (see https://developers.zenodo.org/#sets).
We can also group several Zenodo identifiers in the same
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ISIDORE collection, allowing the depositors of several corpora
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deposited in Zenodo to group them in ISIDORE to give them more
visibility.
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To add your Zenodo repositories in ISIDORE, [please send us the URL OAI-PMH](mailto:isidore-sources@huma-num.fr?subject=%22Je%20souhaiterai%20faire%20moissonner%20mes%20dépôts%20Zenodo%22)
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of your repository (see <https://developers.zenodo.org/#oai-pmh>).
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#### Can files and documents deposited in *Gallica Marque Blanche* platform be referenced by ISIDORE?

Yes, the data deposited and documented in [*Gallica Marque Blanche*](https://www.bnf.fr/fr/gallica-marque-blanche) offer interoperability in OAI-PMH with a dedicated "Set".
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## How do I get data referenced by ISIDORE?
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There are several ways to get data and documents referenced by
ISIDORE:
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- Submit your data via [an XML stream of standardized metadata and using the OAI-PMH protocol](#how-to-signal-data-in-isidore-with-metadata-and-the-oai-pmh-protocol) associated with metadata in Dublin core format. This method is adapted for documentary databases, corpora, scientific archives and document/data libraries. As an example, [a tool such as Omeka (Classic or S) offers the OAI-PMH protocol via modules](#a-website-using-omeka-classic-and-omeka-s-can-be-referenced-by-isidore).
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This method is adapted to research program websites presenting document or data corpora, scientific blogs (except Hypotheses.org), and web pages in general.

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These two methods are also often implemented by data publication tools (CMS, etc.), for example:
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### Can a web site using Drupal be indexed by ISIDORE?
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Yes, it is possible to have web pages generated by the Drupal CMS indexed by ISIDORE.
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There are two ways to do this, depending on the nature of the
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content of your pages:
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- Either via the OAI-PMH protocol and in this case there are several
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    modules for Drupal, see [OAI-PMH for Drupal](https://www.drupal.org/search/site/OAI-PMH?f%5B0%5D=ss_meta_type%3Amodule).
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- Or via the use of a Dublin
    Core metadata structure in the web pages generated by Drupal using RDFa and a
    sitemap.xml. An article dedicated to this way of proceeding is
    available at the above address.
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### Can a website using Omeka Classic and Omeka-S be referenced by ISIDORE?
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Yes, Omeka *Classic* and Omeka S offer modules to expose metadata according to the OAI-PMH protocol:
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- Module for [Omeka S](https://omeka.org/s/modules/OaiPmhRepository/)
- Module for [Omeka Classic](https://omeka.org/classic/docs/Plugins/OaiPmhRepository/)
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### How to report data in ISIDORE with metadata and OAI-PMH protocol?
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To report your data in ISIDORE using the
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OAI-PMH protocol, you just have to:
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- Prepare your data and metadata using the
    Documentary vocabulary Dublin Core Element Set or Dublin Core
    Terms, depending on the level of precision you want, and to
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    make them accessible via [the OAI-PMH protocol](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Archives_Initiative_Protocol_for_Metadata_Harvesting);
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- To organize and document the *Sets* in its OAI-PMH repository.
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- To write to <isidore-sources@huma-num.fr> and give the address of the repository to Huma-Num.
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#### Document sets in OAI-PMH: *Sets*
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The OAI-PMH protocol makes it possible, through the creation of *Sets*, to bring together a coherent set of records whose perimeter makes sense from a scientific or editorial point of view and which is left to the discretion of the producer of the data.
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It also makes it possible to define a hierarchy in the *Sets* with an inheritance mechanism by specifying
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in the set name the name of the parent *Set* and the child *Set*,
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separated by the `:` character. ISIDORE is able to use these
*Sets* to limit harvesting to a set of records or to differentiate between different
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data sources within the same warehouse.
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The producer will therefore have to specify the harvesting methods that seem to be
appropriate in order to make the most of their resources within ISIDORE.
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To do this, he must indicate the *Set* or *Sets*
concerned or a rule enabling the *Sets* to be taken into
account to be distinguished.

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The *Sets* can present metadata, in the Dublin Core Element Set, which are specific to them. For example:
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```xml
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<set>
 <setSpec>OuvColl</setSpec>
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 <setName>OuvColl</setName>
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 <setDescription>
  <oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc="http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/oai_dc/" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/oai_dc/ http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/oai_dc.xsd">
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   <dc:description>Research works distributed on Cairn.info</dc:description>
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  </oai_dc:dc>
 </setDescription>
</set>
```

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#### Records in OAI-PMH or *Records*:
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In the ISIDORE framework, each OAI-PMH "record" corresponds to a document.
The ISIDORE harvester thus exploits the metadata described according to the
application profile defined by the Open Archive Initiative for the
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Dublin Core Element Set (also known as Dublin Core "simple").
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In addition, the harvester also collects the full-text document(s) whose URLs
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 (beginning with `https://` or `http://`) are specified in the
`<dc:identifier>` element.

We recommend data producers to provide records that are as metadata-rich as possible
 since relevance in
ISIDORE favors the richest possible metadata. Fields such as:
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```xml
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<dcterms:description>
<dcterms:creator>
<dcterms:date>
```

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are essential.
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##### Example of a complete record according to the OAI-PMH protocol:
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```xml
<record>
 <header>
  <identifier>oai:halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr:halshs-00514304</identifier>
  <datestamp>2010-09-02T11:06:50Z</datestamp>
  <setSpec>halshs</setSpec>
  <setSpec>SHS:ECO</setSpec>
  <setSpec>SDV:BIO</setSpec>
  <setSpec>INFO:INFO_BT</setSpec>
  <setSpec>SDV:SA:AEP</setSpec>
  <setSpec>SDV:SA:STA</setSpec>
  <setSpec>CIRAD</setSpec>
  <setSpec>SHS</setSpec>
 </header>
 <metadata>
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  <oai_dc:dc xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/oai_dc/ http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/oai_dc.xsd">
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  <dc:identifier>http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00514304/en/ </dc:identifier>
  <dc:identifier>http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/51/43/98/PDF/Regulation_GMO_pprint.pdf</dc:identifier>
  <dc:identifier>http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/51/43/98/PDF/ppt_nocmt_broader_regulation.pdf </dc:identifier>
  <dc:title>Broadening the scope of regulation: a prerequisite for a positive contribution of transgenic crop useto sustainable development</dc:title>
  <dc:creator>Fok, Michel</dc:creator>
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  <dc:subject>[SHS:ECO] Humanities and Social Sciences/Economy and finances</dc:subject>
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  <dc:subject>[SDV:BIO] Life Sciences/Biotechnology</dc:subject>
  <dc:subject>[INFO:INFO_BT] Computer Science/Biotechnology</dc:subject>
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  <dc:subject>[SDV:SA:AEP] Life Sciences/Agricultural sciences/Agriculture, economy and politics</dc:subject>
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  <dc:subject>[SDV:SA:STA] Life Sciences/Agricultural sciences/Sciences and technics of agriculture</dc:subject>
  <dc:subject>regulation</dc:subject>
  <dc:subject>coordination</dc:subject>
  <dc:subject>GMO</dc:subject>
  <dc:subject>biotechnology</dc:subject>
  <dc:subject>seed price</dc:subject>
  <dc:subject>research</dc:subject>
  <dc:subject>weed resistance</dc:subject>
  <dc:subject>pest complex shift</dc:subject>
  <dc:description>Ex-ante regulation of transgenic crop use generally prevails, before the authorization of commercial release.This kind of regulation addresses the concerns of biosafety and coexistence, under pressure of pros and/or cons of GMO. After fifteen years of large scale use of transgenic crops (notablysoybean and cotton) in various countries (USA, China, Brasil, India...), ecological and economic phenomena are observed and which could threaten the sustainable use of transgenic varieties. I advocate that the regulation scope must be extended so as to a) promote a systemic and coordinatedapproach of transgenic crop use, b) ensure seed purity with regard to the transgenic trait, c) maintain research on non-transgenic varieties, and d) warrant fair pricing of transgenic seeds.</dc:description>
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  <dc:coverage>Montpelier</dc:coverage>
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  <dc:coverage>France</dc:coverage>
  <dc:date>2010-08-29</dc:date>
  <dc:language>English</dc:language>
  <dc:type>proceeding with peer review</dc:type>
  <dc:source>Proceedings of Agro2010, the XIth ESA Congress</dc:source>
  <dc:source>Agro2010, the XIth ESA Congress</dc:source>
 </oai_dc:dc>
</metadata>
</record>
```

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In addition to this description in the *Dublin Core Element Set*, each
record can be described in one or more metadata formats, the choice of which is left to the
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the administrator of the OAI-PMH warehouse.
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The ISIDORE harvester is able to use the *Dublin Core Terms* format and any XML schema allowing
full-text exposure (including TEI or EAD) thus improving its indexing.
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The data producer will have to take care to scrupulously respect the specifications of the OAI-PMH protocol version 2.0, in particular as regards:

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- The strict respect of the "datestamp" values in the *records* in order to synchronize the updates between the producer and ISIDORE;
- The good management of deleted data ([detail on the OAI-PMH protocol documentation](http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/openarchivesprotocol.html#DeletedRecords));
- In the case of a publisher's data warehouse or one of significant size, access to its OAI-PMH warehouse via the IP addresses of ISIDORE's OAI-PMH harvesters (harvesting reported by ISIDORE to its IT department).
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We advise producers to regularly validate the compliance of their repository using, for example, the [tools of the Open archive initiative](https://www.openarchives.org/pmh/tools/). Finally, we advise data producers to contact the Huma-Num team for any information requests.
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### How to report data in ISIDORE with RDFa metadata?
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RDFa can express a metadata structure according to the principles of the Semantic Web (RDF for *[Resource Description Framework](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resource_Description_Framework)*) in the HTML code of Web pages. The "a" in RDFa stands for "in
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attributes", i.e. within the HTML code).
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How to express metadata of a web page very simply by
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using the [RDFa syntax](https://tcuvelier.developpez.com/tutoriels/web-semantique/rdfa/introduction/)
? For example, in a blog post published with WordPress. While there
exist [plugins to do this](https://wordpress.org/plugins/search/RDFa/),
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the obsolescence of the latter can make it difficult to maintain them
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over time. Another solution is to implement RDFa in the
HTML code of the WordPress theme you have chosen. For this to be easy
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and manageable over time, the simplest way is to use the HTML header
in order to place `<meta>` tags that will contain some metadata.

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Expressing metadata according to the RDF model via the RDFa syntax allows
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machines (mainly search engines and indexers) to better process information because it becomes more explicit: for a machine, a string can be a title or a summary; if you don't tell the machine that it's a title or a summary it
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will not guess it. So, at the very least, it is possible to use the
tags to define an RDF structure that allows you to structure the minimal metadata
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for example with the Dublin Core Element Set.

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#### How to do it practically?

First of all, it is necessary to indicate in the DOCTYPE of the web page, that it will
contain information that will use the RDF model, so the
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DOCTYPE will be:
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```xml
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<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN" "http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-1.dtd">
```

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The `<html>` tag must contain the addresses of the
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ontology (via their *NameSpace XML*) which are used
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to "type" the information. RDFa - which places metadata in the Semantic Web, requires at least the use of RDF and RDF Schema ontologies and the Dublin Core Element Set (dc). It is possible to use in addition - in order to refine the metadata - the Dublin Core Terms (dcterms):
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```xml
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<html xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"
xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"
xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"
xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">
```

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To encode more information, It is possible to use more
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document ontologies:
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```xml
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<html
xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"
xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"
xmlns:skos="http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#"
xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"
xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"
xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
xmlns:cc="http://creativecommons.org/ns#">
```

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IIn the example above, [foaf](http://www.foaf-project.org/) is used to encode information about a person or object described by the metadata. The [CC](https://creativecommons.org) ontology is used to indicate which license, from the *Creative Commons*, applies to this content.
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The RDFa structure through tags
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in the `<head>` header of the HTML page. In a first step
, using a `<link>` tag, we will define the digital object to which the
RDF encoded information will be attached:
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```xml
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<link rel="dc:identifier" href="http://monblog.com/monbillet.html" />
```

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This tag defines a container for the information that we are going to indicate using the `<meta>` tags. This container is
identified by a URI which is a URL, i.e. the address of the
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page on the web.
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The `<meta>` tags then define a set of metadata, which in our case is descriptive information about the blog post's web page:
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```xml
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<meta property="dc:title" content="The title of my post" />
<meta property="dc:creator" content="First name Last name of author 1" />
<meta property="dc:creator" content="First name Last name of author 2" />
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<meta property="dcterms:created" content="2011-01-27" />
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<meta property="dcterms:abstract" content="A descriptive summary of my page's content" xml:lang="en" />
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<meta property="dcterms:abstract" content="A summary in english" xml:lang="en" />
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<meta property="dc:subject" content="keyword 3" />
<meta property="dc:type" content="ticket" />
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<meta property="dc:format" content="text/html" />
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<meta property="dc:relation" content="A link to a complementary web page" />
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```

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Depending on the nature of the content of the web page, it is of course possible
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to be more precise, more refined and more complete in the
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encoded information. For example, it would be wise to use the DC Terms vocabulary.

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The DC Terms allow, for example, a precise form for a bibliographic reference of the content to be included:
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```xml
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<meta property="dcterms:bibliographicCitation" content="Put a bibliographic reference here" />
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```

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It would be possible to describe the entire text of a web page using the SIOC vocabulary [using the
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property](http://www.lespetitescases.net/rdfaiser-votre-blog-2-la-pratique).
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It is also possible to link web pages together (to
define a corpus of authors for example) by using in the
DC Terms vocabulary the DC Terms property: `dcterms:isPartOf`.
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```xml
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<meta property="dcterms:isPartOf" content="URL of another web page" />
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```

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#### Creating the Sitemap
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Once the RDFa encoding has been done in the HTML pages, you still need to create
a Sitemap XML file listing the pages you want ISIDORE to harvest and to submit the URL of this sitemap:

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```xml
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<urlset xmlns="http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemap/0.9">
	<url>
		<loc>http://monsiteweb.com/</loc>
		<lastmod>2018-01-01</lastmod>
		<changefreq>monthly</changefreq>
		<priority>1.0</priority>
	</url>
	<url>
		<loc>http://monsiteweb.com/page1/</loc>
		<lastmod>2018-03-05</lastmod>
		<changefreq>weekly</changefreq>
		<priority>0.5</priority>
  </url>
</urlset>
```

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It is possible to test the extraction that ISIDORE will do of your
RDFa metadata using the "ISIDORE on demand" application
available at <https://rd.isidore.science/ondemand/fr/rdfa.html>

## ISIDORE perimeter

### Why are some items not found in ISIDORE?

If you do not find all of your scientific production
in [ISIDORE](https://isidore.science), there may be several
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explanations. It may be that your articles are published in
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journals that are not electronic or that do not make their articles available even
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 long after they have been published. Since its
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creation, [ISIDORE](https://isidore.science) favors open
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access since indexing is better for articles available in
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open access. Many electronic journals have made this choice through
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portals such as Open Edition Journal (formerly Revues.org)
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Érudit, Persée, and Cairn.info, Redalyc, OApen and
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and articles from these journals are therefore collected and indexed by
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[ISIDORE](https://isidore.science).

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It is also possible that your articles are published online, but not
on an electronic publishing platform (but a website), or on an electronic publishing platform
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that does not allow indexing via the standard protocol
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(see the question and answer on OAI-PMH).
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Other journals make their articles available, but only after an
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embargo period. In this case,
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[ISIDORE](https://isidore.science) indexes only the metadata
of the article. If you connect via your university library
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, documentation center or via BibCNRS,
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you may still have access to these articles.
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The collections indexed by
[ISIDORE](https://isidore.science) can be searched by using the engine itself and by
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indicating that you want to search the collections.
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It is also possible that your article is published as a PDF image,
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in which case only the indexing by
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[ISIDORE](https://isidore.science) will be allowed, but not its
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full text indexing.
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Lastly, it is possible that some of your articles are published in
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journals that are not classified in SSH.
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In all these cases, you can deposit your articles in an
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open archive such as HAL (HAL-SHS in particular) which is also indexed by
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[ISIDORE](https://isidore.science) or contact your
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bu/documentation center.
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If none of these cases correspond to your problem and you therefore think that there may be an error, you can send us an e-mail to isidore@huma-num.fr.
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### Why are some books/chapters of books not reported in ISIDORE?
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ISIDORE knows how to identify that a document is of the type "book", thus, there are
more than 500,000 books and book chapters reported in
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ISIDORE.

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It should be noted that there are relatively few platforms that publish online books in open access. ISIDORE indexes in SSH, for example, the
contents of book platforms such as:
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- [OpenEdition Books](https://isidore.science/search/?collection=10670/3.szxq6s) (at the chapter level, and to flag them);
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- [Scielo Books](https://isidore.science/search/?collection=10670/3.7oraz1) (Brazil);
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- [OApen](https://isidore.science/search/?collection=10670/3.pwofj8) (Netherlands);
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- [Erudit](https://isidore.science/s/collection?q=erudit) (Canada);
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- ...
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In addition, you can, in agreement with your publisher, deposit your work or
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book or book chapters in the open archive
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[HAL-SHS](https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr). It will then be indexed by
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ISIDORE within the framework of the indexing of HAL-SHS and recognized as a book chapter.

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### Why are some databases are not reported in ISIDORE?
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Harvesting by ISIDORE requires standardized and normalized metadata exposure (documentary, scientific, etc.) (either using the OAI-PMH protocol or using an XML Sitemap and RDFa metadata, see above).
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If you know of any databases that are not present in ISIDORE, please inform us so that we can check with their publishers/data producers.
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## ISIDORE training courses
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Here we list training courses, functional presentations and online self-training courses on the use of ISIDORE. Do not hesitate to let us know about any training session you would like to organize:
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- The *Urfist Méditerranée* proposes a new e-learning training on Isidore (only in french)](https://urfist.univ-cotedazur.fr/nouvelle-formation-en-ligne-une-initiation-a-isidore/) (March 2021)
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- ["Isidore, my personal research assistant"](https://ig.hypotheses.org/2215) by Johanna Daniel (April 2020)